References to “artificial airglow”:
Optical Emissions: The interaction of high-power radio waves with the ionospheric can produce faint optical emissions at specific wavelengths. Recent experiments at the HAARP Gakona Facility investigated the role of the HF beam pointing direction on the production of artificial airglow. The exciting result was that by pointing the HF beam directly along a geomagnetic field line, artificial emissions of greater than 200 Rayleighs (R) at 630.0 nm and greater than 50 R at 557.7 nm could be produced. This intensity was nearly an order of magnitude larger than that produced by heating directly overhead. Weak emissions of approximately 10 R were observed with effective radiated power (ERP) levels as low as 2 MW. These measurements have been repeated in other research campaigns with observations over a wide range of ionospheric conditions.1 Figure 6 shows the artificially generated emission at 557.7 nm that was obtained using the NRL CCD imager during one of the experiments. (The imager used in this research uses a high resolution, cooled CCD. It was developed by NRL’s Plasma Physics Division and on loan to HAARP for the experiment.) Source
Two images of the sky over the HAARP Gakona Facility using the NRL-cooled CCD imager at 557.7 nm. The field of view is approximately 38°. The left-hand image shows the background star field with the HF transmitter off. The right-hand image was taken 63 s later with the HF transmitter on. Structure is evident in the emission region.
Pg 1: HAARP Executive Summary (1990 – Same year as first publication of DoD “chemtrails” manual for the USAF Academy)
HAARP HF ACTIVE AURORAL RESEARCH PROGRAM
JOINT SERVICES PROGRAM PLANS AND ACTIVITIES
AIR FORCE GEOPHYSICS LABORATORY
NAVY OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH
Pg. 2: A key goal of the program is the identification and investigation of those ionospheric processes and phenomena that can be exploited for DOD purposes.
Pg. 3: Generation of ionospheric lenses to focus large amounts of HF energy at high altitudes in the ionosphere, thus providing a means for triggering ionospheric processes that potentially could be exploited for DOD purposes.
Pg. 3: Oblique heating to produce effects on radio wave propagation at great distances from a HF heater, thus broadening the potential military applications of ionospheric enhancement technology.
Pg. 4: Broad HF Frequency Range: The desired heater would have a frequency range from around 1 MHz to about 15 MHz, thereby allowing a wide range of ionospheric processes to be investigated.
Pg. 5: Program Participants The program will be jointly managed by the Navy and the Air Force. However, because of the wide variety of issues to be addressed, active participation of the government agencies, universities, and private contractors is envisioned.
Pg. 7: The heater is used to modulate the conductivity of the lower ionosphere, which in turn modulates ionospheric currents. This modulated current, in effect, produces a virtual antenna in the ionosphere for the radiation of radio waves.
Pg. 7: It is known that ELF/VLF signals generated by lightning strokes propagate through the ionosphere and interact with charged Particles trapped along geomagnetic field lines, causing them, from time to time, to precipitate into the lower ionosphere. If such processes could be reliably controlled, it would be possible to develop techniques to deplete selected regions of the radiation belts of particles, for short periods, thus allowing satellites to operate within them without harm to their electronic components, any of the critical issues associated with this concept of radiation-belt control could be investigated as part of the DOD program.
Pg. 9: 2.6. Oblique HF Heating: Most RF heating experiments being conducted in the West and in the Soviet Union employ vertically propagating HF waves. As such the region of the ionosphere that is affected is directly above the heater. For broader military applications, the potential for significantly altering regions of the ionosphere at relatively great distances (1000 km or more) from a heater is very desirable. This involves the concept of oblique heating. The subject takes an added importance in that higher and higher effective radiated powers are being projected for future HF communication and surveillance systems. The potential for those systems to inadvertently modify the ionosphere, thereby producing self-limiting effects, is a real one that should be investigated, In addition, the vulnerability of HF systems to unwanted effects produced by other, high power transmitters (friend or foe) should be addressed.
Pg 10: There is also evidence in the West that at peak power operation parametric instabilities begin to saturate, and at the same time modest amounts of energy begin to go into electron acceleration, resulting in modest levels of electron-impact excited airglow.
Pg 11: Given that the Soviet HF facilities are several times more powerful than the Western facilities at comparable mid-latitudes, and given that the latter appear to be on a threshold of a new “wave-particle” regime of phenomena, it is believed that the Soviets have crossed that threshold and are exploring a regime of phenomena still unavailable for study or application in the West.
Pg 11: What is clear, is that at the gigawatt and above effective radiated power energy density deposited in limited regions of the ionosphere can drastically alter its thermal, refractive, scattering, and emission character over a very wide electromagnetic (radio frequency) and optical spectrum, what is needed is the knowledge of how to select desired effects and suppress undesired ones.
Pg 11: Over time scales op 100’s of milliseconds and longer, the microinstabilities must coexist with other instabilities that are either triggered or directly driven by the HF-induced turbulence. Some of these instabilities are believed to be explosive in character.
Pg 12: Moreover, even at one experimental station, physical phenomena excited by a high-power HF wave is strongly dependent upon background ionospheric conditions. A classic illustration of this point may be found in Arecibo observations made when local electron energy dissipation rates are low. In this case, the ionospheric plasma literally overheats due to the absence of effective electron thermal loss processes.
Pg 14: The HAARP is to ultimately have a HF heater with an ERP well above 1 gigawatt (on the order of 95-100 dBW); in short, the most powerful facility in the world for conducting ionospheric modification research. In achieving this, the heated area in the F-region should have a minimum diameter of at least 50 km, for diagnostic-measurement purposes.
4.1.2. Frequency Range of Operation
Pg 14: The desired heater would have a frequency range from around 1 MHz to about 15 MHz, thereby allowing a wide range of ionospheric processes to be investigated. This incorporates the electron-gyro frequency and would permit operations under all anticipated ionospheric conditions. Multi-frequency operation using different portions of the antenna array is also a desirable feature. Finally, frequency changing on an order of milliseconds is desirable over the bandwidth of the HF transmitting antenna.
Pg 15: 4.2.1. Incoherent Scatter Radar Facility: A key diagnostic for these measurements will be an incoherent scatter radar facility to provide the means to monitor such background plasma conditions as electron densities, electron and ion temperatures, and electric fields, all as a function of altitude. In addition, the incoherent scatter radar will provide the means for closely examining the generation of plasma turbulence and the acceleration of electrons to high energies in the ionosphere by HF heating.
Pg 15: 4.2.2. Other Diagnostics: The capability of conducting in situ measurements of the heated region in the ionosphere, via rocket-borne instrumentation, is also very desirable. Other diagnostics to be employed, depending on the specific nature of the HF heating experiments, may include HF receivers for the detection of stimulated electromagnetic emissions from heater induced turbulence in the ionosphere; HF/VHF radars, to determine the amplitudes of short-scale (1-10 m) geomagnetic field-aligned irregularities; optical imagers, to determine the flux and energy spectrum of accelerated electrons and to provide a three-dimensional view of artificially produced airglow in the upper atmosphere: and, scintillation observations, to be used in assessing the impact of HF heating on satellite downlinks and in diagnosing large- scale ionospheric structures.
Pg 16: 5. PROGRAM PARTICIPANTS: The program will be jointly managed by the Navy and the Air Force. However, because of the wide variety of issues to be addressed, substantial involvement in the program by other government agencies (DARPA, DNA, NSF, etc.), universities, and private contractors is envisioned.